You can use az cli task on Azure devops in order to execute a powershell command inside a virtual machine without having to connect on it with username and password. In order to do that you have to use AzureCLI task and invoke a RunPowerShellScript.
- task: AzureCLI@2 displayName: execute command inside vm inputs: azureSubscription: 'subscription' scriptType: 'ps' scriptLocation: 'inlineScript' inlineScript: 'az vm run-command invoke --command-id RunPowerShellScript --name $(vm_name) -g $(vnet_rg_name) --scripts "hostname"'
You should use your own variables regarding the vm_name and rg_name. This task will execute on a windows-latest machine and will output the hostname of the machine that is given as input with the variables.